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07 February 2013

Indian Muslims: Sachar Committee Report on latest social, economic and educational condition of the Muslim community of India

The Rajinder Sachar Committee, appointed in 2005 by the Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, was commissioned to prepare a report on the latest socialeconomic and educational condition of the Muslim community of India. The committee was headed by the former Chief Justice of Delhi High Court Rajinder Sachar, including other six members. The committee prepared a report of 403 pages, and presented in the lower house (Lok Sabha) of the Indian Parliament on 30 November 2006 (20 months after obtaining the terms of reference from the PMO).
The committee had highlighted and presented its suggestions and solutions to include and mainstreamIndian Muslims. The online report is available from the Indian Government website. The report is first of its kind revealing the backwardness of Indian Muslims, according to Sachar Committee report some of the major concers are:
  • The status of Indian Muslims are below the conditions of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
  • The overall percentage of Muslims in bureaucracy in India is just 2.5% whereas Muslims constitute above 14% of Indian population.
To ensure equity and equality of opportunities to Indian Muslims in residential, work and educational sector, the Committee had proposed multiple suggestions to be adopted, with a suitable mechanisms.
There is a lot of discussions and debates goes on the Sachar Committee Report. There are follow-up actions taken based on Committee findings like then the Finance Minister P. Chidambaram action funding for National Minorities Development and Finance Corporation (NMDFC).
Last year, I made a modest contribution of Rs.16.47 crore to the equity of the NMDFC. Following the Sachar Committee report (on the status of minorities), NMDFC would be required to expand its reach and intensify its efforts. Hence, I propose to provide a further sum of INR 63 crore to the share capital of NMDFC

Main findings of the report

The entire Sachar Report is available for download at various websites. The Sachar Committee Report online
Some findings are as follows: 
A..Sachar committee has put a lot of analysis about the Indian Muslim with "statistical reports" based on information from government agencies, banks, Indian Minority Commission, different state governments and its agencies. The major points covered in the reports are:
  • In the field of literacy the Committee has found that the rate among Muslims is very much below than the national average. The gap between Muslims and the general average is greater in urban areas and women. 25 per cent of children of Muslim parents in the 6-14 year age group have either never attended school or have dropped out.
  • Muslim parents are not averse to mainstream education or to send their children to affordable Government schools. The access to government schools for children of Muslim parents is limited.
  • Bidi workers, tailors and mechanics need to be provided with social safety nets and social security. The participation of Muslims in the professional and managerial cadre is low.
  • The average amount of bank loan disbursed to the Muslims is 2/3 of the amount disbursed to other minorities. In some cases it is half. The Reserve Bank of India’s efforts to extend banking and credit facilities under the Prime Minister’s 15-point programme of 1983 has mainly benefited other minorities marginalizing Muslims.
  • There is a clear and significant inverse association between the proportion of the Muslim population and the availability of educational infrastructure in small villages. Muslim concentration villages are not well served with pucca approach roads and local bus stops.
  • Substantially larger proportion of the Muslim households in urban areas are in the less than Rs.500 expenditure bracket.
  • The presence of Muslims has been found to be only 3% in the IAS, 1.8% in the IFS and 4% in the IPS.
  • Muslim community has a representation of only 4.5% in Indian Railways while 98.7% of them are positioned at lower levels. Representation of Muslims is very low in the Universities and in Banks. Their share in police constables is only 6%, in health 4.4%, in transport 6.5%.
  • For the Maulana Azad Education Foundation to be effective the corpus fund needs to be increased to 1000 crores. Total allocation in the four years 2002 to 2006 for Madarsa Modernization Scheme is 106 crores. The information regarding the Scheme has not adequately percolated down. Even if the share of Muslims in elected bodies is low they and other under represented segments can be involved in the decision making process through innovative mechanisms.
  • Most of the variables indicate that Muslim-OBCs are significantly deprived in comparison to Hindu-OBCs. The work participation rate (WPR) shows the presence of a sharp difference between Hindu-OBCs (67%) and the Muslims. The share of Muslim-OBCs in government/ PSU jobs is much lower than Hindu-OBCs.
  • There are about 5 lakh registered Wakfs with 600,000 acres (2,400 km²) land and Rs 6,000 crore book value.

Removal of common stereotypes

The Sachar committee report helped in a big way to remove common stereotypes. Some of these important findings were:
  • Only four per cent of Muslims students actually go to madrassas primarily because primary state schools do not exist for miles. Therefore, the idea that Muslims prefer madrassa education was found to be not true.
  • That there is “substantial demand from the community for fertility regulation and for modern contraceptives” and over 20 million couples are already using contraceptives. “Muslim population growth has slowed down as fertility has declined substantially”. This does away with the concern that Muslim population growth would be able to outnumber Hindus or change the religious demography in any meaningful way.
  • That Muslims wherever spoken to complained of suffering the twin calumnies of being dubbed “anti-national” and of being “appeased”. However, the Indian Muslim community as a whole had never indulged in anti-national activities and the conditions borne out by the committee's findings clearly explained that no "appeasement" had taken place
  • In private industry like the BPO industry, Muslims have been able to do well and find employment in large numbers. However this is restricted to large companies mainly.
  • Muslims in Gujarat, a state that was ravaged by 2002 Gujarat riots, were indicated to be better of in terms of Education and Economic well being than the national average. Even in terms of employment Gujarat had a better share of Muslims in government jobs (5.4%) than compared to states like West Bengal (2.1%) and New Delhi (3.2%).

Summary of recommendations

The report put forward some recommendations to eliminate the situation raised for Indian Muslim. Justice Sachar explained that the upliftment minorities and implementation of these recommendations would strengthen the secular fabric of Indian society as well as increase patriotism due to their all inclusive progress. The recommendation include:
  • Mechanisms to ensure equity and equality of opportunity and eliminate discrimination.
  • Creation of a National Data Bank (NDB) where all relevant data for various Socio Religious Communities are maintained.
  • Form an autonomous Assessment and Monitoring Authority to evaluate the extent of development benefits
  • An Equal Opportunity Commission should be constituted to look into the grievances of the deprived groups.
  • Elimination of the anomalies with respect to reserved constituencies under the delimitation scheme.
  • The idea of providing certain incentives to a diversity index should be explored to ensure equal opportunities in education, governance, private employment and housing.
  • A process of evaluating the content of the school textbooks needs to be initiated and institutionalized.
  • The UGC should evolve a system where part of the allocation to colleges and universities is linked to the diversity in the student population.
  • Providing hostel facilities at reasonable costs for students from minorities must be taken up on a priority basis.
  • The Committee recommended promoting and enhancing access to Muslims in Priority Sector Bank Advances.
  • The real need is of policy initiatives that improve the participation and share of the Minorities, particularly Muslims in the business of regular commercial banks.
  • The community should be represented on interview panels and Boards. The underprivileged should be helped to utilize new opportunities in its high growth phase through skill development and education.
  • Provide financial and other support to initiatives built around occupations where Muslims are concentrated and have growth potential.


  • Syed Shahabuddin,the former MP from Janata Dal says Sachar Committee has collected the facts and figures more than suffice. But it should have put forward some concrete resolution like Minority Reservation if needed.
  • Janata Dal (United) party president Sharad Yadav, a senior partner of the BJP in the NDA coalition, has strongly voiced his support and demanded quick implementation of the committee findings. He also emphasized the importance of including Dalit Muslims and Christians in the SC category.
  • The Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) has also urged the government to table the bill for implementing the committee findings even if an emergency session has to be called.
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sachar_Committee
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sachar_Committee_Report

See aslo:

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    Why partition of India?

    Muhammad Ali Jinnah agreed to united India with safeguards for all Muslims of India, by accepting The British Cabinet Mission of 1946 to India. Promulgated on 16 May 1946, the plan to create a united dominion of India as a loose confederation of provinces came to be known by the date of its announcement:

    1. A united Dominion of India would be given independence.
    2. Muslim-majority provinces would be grouped - BaluchistanSindPunjab and North-West Frontier Province would form one group, and Bengal and Assam would form another.
    3. Hindu-majority provinces in central and southern India would form another group.
    4. The Central government would be empowered to run foreign affairs, defence and communications, while the rest of powers and responsibility would belong to the provinces, coordinated by groups.
    5. The Central government would be empowered to run foreign affairs, defence and communications, while the rest of powers and responsibility would belong to the provinces, coordinated by groups.'

    The Congress Working Committee had initially approved the plan. However, on 10 July, Jawaharlal Nehru, who later became the first prime minister of India, held a press conferencein Bombay declaring that the Congress had agreed only to participate in the Constituent Assembly and "regards itself free to change or modify the Cabinet Mission Plan as it thought best. The Muslim League gave its approval to the plan. There was an impression that the Congress also had accepted the scheme and the Plan would be the basis of the future constitution of India.Jinnah, in his speech to the League Council, clearly stated that he recommended acceptance only because nothing better could be obtained. [This could have saved the killing and migration of millions ] Kanji Dawarka Das in his famous book "Ten Years to freedom 1937-47" and Jaswant singh in his recent book "Jinnah India-Independence-Partition" writes all details of congress working committee debates and untimely press conference by JLN in which congress rejected the last effort to avoid partition.[from Wikipedia]


    I personally feel Jawahar Lal Nehru and his associates mischievously turned down Cabinet Mission Plan 1946, and divided India for personal gains and to keep exploiting Muslim minority in India. Imagine in united India [Over 1000 Million] the Muslims population would have been equal [50-58%] or more than Hindus [Pak 180 Mn+BD 150 Mn+ 200 Mn=580 Million]. It would have not been  possible to treat them  unfairly.

    You Indian Muslims sacrificed your present for our batter future, but you were betrayed. A prosperous, economically strong Pakistan would have been source of moral strength. We could have provided economic and moral support to our Muslim brothers in India, but alas! the White Masters were replaced by Brown Sahibs ... The day is not far off when we shall throw away this yoke of slavery... and help brothers to stand at their own with dignity. Indian and Pakistani leadership can learn from European Union, US-Canada, resolve issues like Kashmir and live like good neighbours. Concentrate towards welfare of their citizens.
    However just a reminder from the Holy Book:
    "Verily, God does not change men's condition unless they change their inner selves"[Quran;13:11]  
    ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّـهَ لَمْ يَكُ مُغَيِّرًا نِّعْمَةً أَنْعَمَهَا عَلَىٰ قَوْمٍ حَتَّىٰ يُغَيِّرُوا مَا بِأَنفُسِهِمْ ۙ وَأَنَّ اللَّـهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ ﴿٥٣
    This is because Allah has never changed a favor which He has conferred upon a people until they change their own condition; and because Allah is Hearing, Knowing;[Quran;8:53]  
    یہ اس لئے کہ اللہ تعالیٰ ایسا نہیں کہ کسی قوم پر کوئی نعمت انعام فرما کر پھر بدل دے جب تک کہ وه خود اپنی اس حالت کو نہ بدل دیں جو کہ ان کی اپنی تھی اور یہ کہ اللہ سننے واﻻ جاننے واﻻ ہے (53)
    यह इसलिए हुआ कि अल्लाह उस उदार अनुग्रह (नेमत) को, जो उसने किसी क़ौम पर किया हो, बदलनेवाला नहीं हैं, जब तक कि लोग उस चीज़ को न बदल डालें, जिसका सम्बन्ध स्वयं उनसे है। और यह कि अल्लाह सब कुछ सुनता, जानता है (8:53) 
    তার কারণ এই যে, আল্লাহ কখনও পরিবর্তন করেন না, সে সব নেয়ামত, যা তিনি কোন জাতিকে দান করেছিলেন, যতক্ষণ না সে জাতি নিজেই পরিবর্তিত করে দেয় নিজের জন্য নির্ধারিত বিষয়। বস্তুতঃ আল্লাহ শ্রবণকারী, মহাজ্ঞানী। (53) 
    "ஏனெனில், எந்த ஒரு சமுதாயமும் தன் உள்ளத்திலுள்ள (போக்குகளை) மாற்றிக் கொள்ளாத வரையில், அல்லாஹ் அவர்களுக்கு வழங்கிய அருட்கொடைகளை மாற்றிவிடுவதில்லை - நிச்சயமாக அல்லாஹ் (எல்லாவற்றையும்) செவியுறுபவனாகவும், (யாவற்றையும்) நன்கறிபவனாகவும் இருக்கின்றான். (8:53) 
    ഒരു ജനവിഭാഗത്തിനു് താന്‍ ചെയ്തുകൊടുത്ത അനുഗ്രഹം അവരുടെ സ്വന്തം നിലപാടില്‍ അവര്‍ മാറ്റം വരുത്തുന്നത് വരെ അല്ലാഹു മാറ്റിക്കളയുന്നതല്ല എന്നത്കൊന്നുത്രെ അത്‌. അല്ലാഹു എല്ലാം കേള്‍ ക്കുന്നവനും അറിയുന്നവനുമാണ് എന്നത്കൊന്നുു‍ം (8:53) 


    1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Violence_against_Muslims_in_India
    2. The decline of Indian Muslims
    3. Just less than 3% Muslims in Indian Army
    4. Indian Muslims reject extremist creeds- Wiki-leaks
    5. Indian Muslims: Sachar Committee Report on latest social, economic and educational condition of the Muslim community of India  
    6. http://www.theweek.in/columns/barkha-dutt/if-i-were-muslim.html   

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